What are Orthotics?
Orthotics are shoe inserts that are intended to correct an abnormal, or irregular, walking pattern. They perform functions that make standing, walking, and running more comfortable and efficient by slightly altering the angles at which the foot strikes a walking or running surface.
Doctors of podiatric medicine prescribe orthotics as a conservative approach to many foot problems or as a method of control after certain types of foot surgery; their use is a highly successful, practical treatment form.
Foot orthotics fall into three broad categories: those that primarily attempt to change foot function, those that are primarily protective in nature, and those that combine functional control and protection.
Soft orthotic devices help to absorb shock, increase balance, and take pressure off uncomfortable or sore spots.
They are usually constructed of soft, compressible materials, and may be molded by the action of the foot in walking or fashioned over a plaster impression of the foot.
Also worn against the sole of the foot, they usually extend from the heel past the ball of the foot to include the toes.
Soft orthotics are particularly effective for arthritic, diabetic, and badly deformed feet to provide extra support and comfort.
Rigid orthotic devices correct foot function, usually the motion of two major foot joints directly below the ankle joint.
They may be made of a firm material such as plastic or carbon fiber, generally fabricated from a plaster of paris mold of the individual foot.
The finished device normally extends along the sole of the heel to the ball or toes of the foot, and mostly worn in closed shoes. Because of the nature of the materials involved, very little alteration in shoe size is necessary.
Strains, aches, and pains in the legs, thighs, and lower back may be due to abnormal function of the foot, or a slight difference in the length of the legs.
In such cases, orthotics may improve or eliminate these symptoms, which may seem only remotely connected to foot function.
Semirigid orthotic devices provides for dynamic balance of the foot while walking or participating in sports.
This orthotic is not a crutch, but an aid to the athlete. Each sport has its own demands and each sport orthotic needs to be constructed appropriately with the sport and the athlete taken into consideration.
This functional dynamic orthotic helps guide the foot through proper functions, allowing the muscles and tendons to perform more efficiently.
The classic, semirigid orthotic is constructed of layers of soft material, reinforced with more rigid materials.
Orthotics for Children
Orthotic devices are effective in the treatment of children with foot deformities.
Most podiatric physicians recommend that children with such deformities be placed in orthotics soon after they start walking, to stabilize the foot.
The devices can be placed directly into a standard shoe or an athletic shoe.
Usually, the orthotics need to be replaced when the child’s foot has grown two sizes. Different types of orthotics may be needed as the child’s foot develops and changes shape.
The length of time a child needs orthotics varies considerably, depending on the seriousness of the deformity and how soon correction is addressed.
Other Types of Orthotics
Various other orthotics may be used for multidirectional sports or edge-control sports by casting the foot within the ski boot, ice skate boot, or inline skate boot.
Combinations of semiflexible material and soft material to accommodate painful areas are utilized for specific problems.
Research has shown that back problems frequently can be traced to a foot imbalance.
It is important for your podiatric physician to evaluate the lower extremity as a whole to provide for appropriate orthotic control for foot problems.
Wear shoes that work well with your orthotics.
Bring your orthotics with you whenever you purchase a new pair of shoes.
Wear socks or stockings similar to those that you plan on wearing when you shop for new shoes.
Return as directed for follow-up evaluation of the functioning of your orthotics. This is important for making certain that your feet and orthotics are functioning properly together.
Your podiatric physician/surgeon has been trained specifically and extensively in the diagnosis and treatment of all manner of foot conditions.
This training encompasses all of the intricately related systems and structures of the foot and lower leg including neurological, circulatory, skin, and the musculoskeletal system, which includes bones, joints, ligaments, tendons, muscles, and nerves.